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发布日期:2021-04-07 20:57:01 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

Coming to this weekend, as the only mainstream European competition to be played during the epidemic, the Bundesliga is bound to welcome the attention of fans all over the world. Perhaps in the eyes of most fans, the Bundesliga has long been labeled as "dominant", "small business", "player supermarket" and other labels, but when you really integrate into it, you will find that these misunderstandings are far from the real attributes of the Bundesliga — —The "First League" that took the lead in the rematch is actually far more exciting than you think!


However, while the outside world has been enthusiastically arguing whether the "50+1" policy should be abolished, they always ignore that there is a more representative policy in German football, which is the "license approval" that the Bundesliga (Germany 2) teams must comply with. System"-this policy is called "the most important reform of German professional football" by the German media, and it is the fundamental guarantee for German football to enter a healthy league.

但是,尽管外界一直在热烈争论是否应废除“ 50 + 1”政策,但他们始终无视德国足球中更具代表性的政策,这是德甲联赛的“执照批准”(德国2)团队必须遵守。制度”,这一政策被德国媒体称为“德国职业足球最重要的改革”,是德国足球进入健康联盟的根本保证。

Many old fans may remember that in 2001 Dortmund spent huge sums of money to buy stars such as Rosicky, Kohler, and Amoruso. Although Dortmund won the Bundesliga title the following year, he owed a debt of 125 million pounds due to profligacy, and even nearly went bankrupt in 2005. In fact, this situation also appeared in other Bundesliga teams at that time, coupled with the bankruptcy of the broadcaster Kirsch Group, caused the Bundesliga to have a debt of 700 million euros in 2006.

许多老球迷可能还记得,多特蒙德在2001年花费巨资购买了罗西基,科勒和阿莫鲁索等明星。尽管第二年多特蒙德赢得了德甲联赛的冠军,但由于挥霍无度,他欠下了1.25亿英镑的债务,甚至在2005年几乎破产。事实上,这种情况在当时的其他德甲球队中也都出现过,并且破产了。广播公司基尔希集团(Kirsch Group)导致德甲联赛在2006年负债7亿欧元。

After learning from it, the German Professional Football League began to introduce a strict "license approval system." Accordingly, the Bundesliga (Germany Second) team must submit to the league a report on their team’s competition, law, administration, infrastructure, security, and finances. Only when the report is passed can you be eligible to participate in the new season. Among these projects, the financial requirements are the most stringent, and the club’s operating deficit is too high (for example, more than 50% of the total budget) to pass.


As a result, the Bundesliga teams represented by Dortmund began to reflect on themselves, a new operating mechanism began to be established, and the teams paid more attention to increasing revenue and reducing expenditure and rational management. At the same time, the league has also taken measures to help clubs believe in their ability to operate healthily, and teams with financial problems will be subject to penalties and other measures. Since 2008, the Bundesliga has finally turned losses into profits, and has become the most profitable league among the five major leagues. The total profit of the five major leagues that year was 402 million euros, and the profit of the Bundesliga 18 teams was as high as 250 million euros. , Accounting for 62% of the total profits of the five major leagues.

结果,以多特蒙德为代表的德甲球队开始反思自己,建立了新的运作机制,并且球队更加注重增加收入,减少支出和合理管理。同时,联赛还采取了一些措施,以帮助俱乐部相信自己健康运作的能力,而财务有问题的球队将受到处罚和其他措施。自2008年以来,德甲联赛终于将亏损变成了利润,并成为五大联盟中最赚钱的联盟。当年五个大联盟的总利润为4.02亿欧元,德甲18支球队的利润高达2.5亿欧元。 ,占五个大联盟总利润的62%。

It can be seen that although the Bundesliga is not the league with the highest income, it is the league with the highest net profit. After 2008, 36 Bundesliga and Bundesliga teams have achieved full profits for several consecutive seasons. In other words, although most of the German teams do not have a behind-the-scenes owner or home, they have supported themselves and continued to develop through their own operations and efforts. Take Dortmund as an example. The club that was about to go bankrupt in 2005 had a turnover of 260 million Euros and a net profit of 11.97 million Euros during the 2013-14 season. Such a comeback and strong rise performance is undoubtedly the best in European football. A model of business.

可以看出,尽管德甲联赛不是收入最高的联赛,但它是净利润最高的联赛。 2008年之后,共有36个德甲联赛和德甲联赛球队连续几个赛季获得了全部利润。换句话说,尽管大多数德国车队没有幕后的主人或家,但他们自给自足,并通过自己的行动和努力继续发展。以多特蒙德为例。这家即将在2005年破产的俱乐部在2013-14赛季的营业额为2.6亿欧元,净利润为1,197万欧元。这样的卷土重来和强劲的表现无疑是欧洲足球中最好的。商业模式。

In fact, not all Bundesliga teams have no gold masters, such as Volkswagen's Wolfsburg, Bayer's Leverkusen and the newly emerging Red Bull RB Leipzig. However, under the existing regulatory system, no matter how "generous" the sponsor behind any club is, only financial health is the criterion to win the league qualification. Even Leipzig CEO Mintzlaff also affirmed: "The club's goal is to participate in The goal of integrating into international competitions is to be accomplished step by step, not created by spending money."


To achieve survival, profitability and even growth through our own efforts is the basis for the sustainable development of football. Therefore, German football cannot have the golden dollar football after the "local tyrants" such as Manchester City and Paris have taken over, nor will there be the tragedy of bankruptcy due to the "weaning" of the parent company like Parma (Tianjin Tianhai is quite similar), let alone There will be a penalty for Manchester City being banned from the European Championship for violating the Fiscal Fairness Act. Dortmund CEO Watzke pointed out: "The essence of football lies in fair competition. Some clubs have limited income but invest huge transfer funds and high salaries. Although they allow the club to grow rapidly in the short term, it damages the entire football environment in the long run."


It is worth mentioning that under its own business philosophy, the German club took the lead in opening its arms to Asia, from Che Fangen to Ali-Dai, and then to Kagawa Shinji and Sun Xingmin, countless "good quality and cheap" Asia The stars are rising here. Among them, Chinese player Yang Chen joined Frankfurt at the end of the last century and then made history with a single season of 8 goals. Since then, Xie Hui, Li Bing, Zhang Xiaorui, Zhou Ning, Shao Jiayi, Hao Junmin and other players have left their footprints in the German arena. In particular, Shao Jiayi was also selected into the Bundesliga Legends Hall of Fame, which allowed the Bundesliga to cultivate a group of loyal fans in China. .

值得一提的是,德国俱乐部以其自身的经营理念率先向亚洲开放,从车范根到阿里·戴,再到香川真司和孙兴民,向亚洲开放。星星在这里升起。其中,中国选手杨晨(Yang Chen)于上世纪末加入法兰克福,然后凭借8个进球的单赛季创造了历史。从那以后,谢辉,李冰,张小瑞,周宁,邵家宜,郝俊民和其他球员都在德国舞台上留下了自己的足迹。特别是,邵佳一还入选了德甲传奇名人堂,这使德甲在中国培养了一批忠实的粉丝。 。

The most successful example is Dortmund. Different from the league championships brought by huge amounts of money at the beginning of the century, after the bankruptcy crisis, the young talents trained by Klopp won the Bundesliga championship and reached the Champions League final. Dembele, who changed hands after only playing for one year, made the Hornet a net profit of 100 million euros... Therefore, this exemplary role has made the concept of youth training deeply rooted in Germany, even though Bayern, who is "not bad for money," Under the circumstances of the fruit, he is also worried, and Hoffenheim and Freiburg are examples of another successful round of youth training recently.


In fact, as early as after the German chariot broke down in the two European Cup group matches in 2000 and 2004, German football, which faced the difficult situation of the blue and yellow, started a drastic reform of youth training. The focus is to strengthen the youth football training system, and the target of the reform First of all aimed at the club. In this regard, the league has included the construction of youth training as a mandatory requirement for qualification review-each Bundesliga and German second team must have a youth training academy (youth training system) that meets professional standards, and the youth training supporting construction must also meet Relevant standards, such as each Bundesliga youth team must have 3 professional venues (2 German B) and 3 professional coaches (2 German B).


In addition, the German Football League has also established strict standards for many details related to youth training, such as goalkeeper coaches, team doctors, and nutrition counseling. For every club, these hard demands have no possibility of "bargaining". Therefore, clubs would rather tighten their belts in the transfer market and continue to invest more in the development of youth training-everyone understands that this is related to the future of German football as well as its own future.


In the past ten years, the German Football Association and clubs have spent an average of more than 100 million euros per year on the development of youth training! More than 52 outstanding youth training centers and 366 regional youth coaching bases have been established across Germany, covering almost every corner of the country. As of the end of 2011, Germany had more than 6.3 million registered players, and young players (about 1.8 million) accounted for the main proportion. By 2015, 275 of the 525 players on 18 Bundesliga teams came from the German youth training system. As high as 52.4%.


The city of Rome was not built overnight. Youth football needs patience and persistence. After embarking on the right path, the rise of the German league and even German football has become inevitable. In 2009, the German youth team won the U21 European Youth Championship, and this generation of players has again lifted the World Cup for Germany in 2014. In 2017 and 2019, the German youth team reached the U21 European Youth Championship two consecutive finals (one championship and one Asia). The second German team composed of young talents also won the Confederations Cup in 2017.

罗马城不是一朝一夕就能建成的。青少年足球需要耐心和毅力。走上正确的道路后,德国联赛乃至德国足球的崛起已成为必然。 2009年,德国青年队赢得了U21欧洲青年锦标赛的冠军,这一代球员再次捧起了2014年德国世界杯。2017年和2019年,德国青年队连续两届进入U21欧洲青年锦标赛决赛(一个冠军和一个亚洲)。由年轻才华组成的第二支德国队也获得了2017年联合会杯冠军。

Nowadays, German football does not seem to be competing against who has more money, but insisting on competing against whose youth training is more successful. Bayern invested 70 million euros (actual expenditure reached 100 million) to promote the construction of a new youth training center. RB Leipzig, which was established in 2009, invested tens of millions of euros to quickly build 14 high-quality echelons of different age groups from U8 to U23..." The prestige of "processing factory" has made the German team famous in football. Young talents from all over the world have given priority to landing in Germany as an important starting point for their career.

如今,德国足球似乎并不在与谁拥有更多的钱竞争,而是坚持与谁的青年训练更成功竞争。拜仁投资7,000万欧元(实际支出达到1亿欧元)以促进新的青年培训中心的建设。成立于2009年的RB莱比锡(RB Leipzig)投资数千万欧元,迅速建立了从U8到U23的14个不同年龄段的高品质梯队...“”加工厂“的声望使德国队在足球界享有盛誉来自世界各地的年轻人才已优先考虑登陆德国,这是其职业生涯的重要起点。

In recent years, from the winger confrontation between Pele and Pulisic, to the golden boy competition between Sancho and Haverts, to the rise of young players such as Davis this season, German football has always had the excitement of "a hero from ancient times". . This season's winter window, Dortmund even signed the talented player Harland after defeating opponents such as Manchester United and Juventus. The 19-year-old Norwegian striker has not concealed his recognition of the Bundesliga's advantage in training young talent. After entering the Yellow and Black Army, Haaland scored 5 goals in 57 minutes after coming off the bench in the first two games, and he scored twice as a starter in the third game. This is unprecedented and the record of no one in the future. Shocked the football!

近年来,从贝利和普利西奇之间的边锋对抗,到桑乔和汉弗特斯之间的金童争霸,再到本赛季戴维斯等年轻球员的崛起,德国足球一直以来都充满着“远古时代的英雄”的兴奋感。 。 。本赛季的冬季之窗,多特蒙德击败了曼联和尤文图斯等对手后,甚至签下了才华横溢的球员哈兰德。这位19岁的挪威前锋并未掩饰他对德甲在培养年轻人才方面的优势的认可。在进入黄黑军之后,哈兰德在前两场比赛中替补出场后57分钟内攻入5球,在第三场比赛中他作为首发得分两次。这是史无前例的,而且将来没有人记录。震惊了足球!

According to statistics from UEFA in 2017, Germany has 28,400 coaches with B-level certificates (1,759 in the UK), 5,500 A-level coaches (895 in the UK), and 1,070 top-certified coaches (115 in the UK). At the same time, more and more professional players choose to join the coaching position after retirement. For example, in the German team in the 2006 World Cup, there are currently Borowski, Neuville, Asamoah, Klose and others as coaches.


The most concern is that Bayern officials recently announced that the former German international Klose was officially promoted to the first team assistant. In fact, Klose has been coaching Bayern U17 for a long time and handed over a pretty good report card. After getting the coach’s license, he began to hone his coaching skills from the youth team. It is not only a reasonable choice for K God to make a step-by-step approach, but also The general choice of German coaches is also an inevitable choice.


Xinke coaches give priority to contributing to the youth training system, not only can help young players grow through their own words and deeds, but also show their potential and abilities on this equally competitive platform. In this regard, the German Football Association and the well-known Cologne Sports Academy jointly established the Hines-Weisweiler Academy. This German football "Whampoa Military Academy" trains excellent coaches full-time (about 20 new professional coaches are regularly trained for Germany each year). The places are mainly awarded to high-quality coaches who have performed well in the youth team, and only the college is awarded Only with a diploma is eligible to coach in the German professional league.


At the same time, while preparing the stage for young talents, the Bundesliga also prepares the stage for outstanding youth coaches. In particular, clubs are increasingly inclined to provide trust and opportunities for young coaches who have performed well in the youth training system and have achieved impressive training in the academy. For example, Nagelsman once led the youth team to run through the entire German stadium, and later graduated with full marks at the Hines-Weissweiler Academy, and became the youngest head coach in Bundesliga history at the age of 28. After taking over the "Deputy Squad Leader" Hoffenheim, he led the team to relegation early, and even got a place in the Champions League qualifying game the following year.

同时,德甲联赛在为年轻才华做准备的同时,也为杰出青年教练做准备。尤其是,俱乐部越来越倾向于为在青年培训体系中表现出色并在学院中获得出色培训的青年教练提供信任和机会。例如,内格斯曼(Nagelsman)曾带领青年队穿越整个德国体育场,后来以高分毕业于海因斯·魏斯维勒学院(Hines-Weissweiler Academy),并在28岁时成为德甲历史上最年轻的主教练。副队长霍芬海姆(Hoffenheim)带领他的球队提早降级,甚至在次年的欧冠资格赛中也占有一席之地。

In addition to Nagelsmann, the Hines-Weissweiler Academy is very fruitful in German football. Bayern coach Flick, Bremen coach Koffelte, former miners coach Tedesco, and former German U20 coach Kramer have all graduated here as champions. Frick, who turned the tide at Bayern this season, needless to say. Only Tedesco, who has played for the 8th-level team in Germany, was an auto mechanic. Later, he completed the sublimation step by step from the assistant coach position of the U9 echelon and brought the miners to The position of the Bundesliga runner-up.


This is today's German football, with young players and coaches constantly emerging and fierce competition. More importantly, these new coaches are not only good at discovering and applying young talents, their coaching style and management level are firmly grasping the latest trends in world football, and offensive football is a universal choice they never give up. ——This is very consistent with the philosophy of German football.

这是当今的德国足球,年轻的球员和教练不断涌现且竞争激烈。更重要的是,这些新教练不仅善于发现和运用年轻人才,他们的教练风格和管理水平也牢牢把握了世界足球的最新趋势,而进攻性足球是他们永不放弃的普遍选择。 -这与德国足球的哲学非常吻合。

As a result, offense, speed, and passion have become common expressions in German football. Over the years, the Bundesliga has consistently ranked first in the number of goals scored in the five major leagues, and wonderful performances have emerged one after another. By the way, do you remember the "Rurdby" who chased 4 goals in halftime when the miners faced Dortmund? This kind of game not only makes fans enjoy it, but also deeply feels that the competitive level of Bundesliga is indeed second to none in European football.


Because of this, insisting on being fan-oriented has become the primary starting point of every club. For example, the ticket price of the Bundesliga is the lowest of the five major leagues, and the ticket price of Bayern's home stadium is not as small as the ticket price of Arsenal. Therefore, every time Bayern plays Arsenal away in a European game, the club even takes the initiative to make up for the difference in ticket prices for Bayern fans who go to the away game.


Former Bayern Chairman Hernes once said when discussing the pricing of season tickets: "We can increase the ticket price from 104 pounds to 300 pounds, so that we can earn an extra 2 million pounds, but 2 million is nothing to us? It's nothing more than a transfer. It’s just 5 minutes longer during the negotiation, but there is a big difference between £104 and £300 for the fans. We don’t think that fans are cows to be crushed.


According to the authoritative media "transfer market" data, the Bundesliga has consistently occupied the top spot in world football in terms of average attendance and attendance in recent years. Among them, Dortmund, with an average audience of 81,132 people, is the club with the most attendance this season, while Bayern has the highest attendance rate with 100% (75,000 people). The outside world may not know that Dortmund's home game in Westfalen is known as "Europe's first home game." Among the 55,000 season ticket holders, only a few dozen people choose not to renew their purchases every year. For the more than 100,000 special members, it takes several years to wait in line to purchase the season pass. As for the season pass at the South Stand, it is a fantasy.


The base of fans watching on-site has allowed the brand recognition of the Bundesliga to exceed 90%, which in turn allowed clubs to further generate revenue in advertising and peripherals. In particular, in addition to supporting the team by buying tickets, the majority of fans are also very active in buying team peripheral products-they know that the club itself is not easy to operate, this kind of extensive investment from fans is the club's powerful income generation basis.


What cannot be ignored here is that these long-established German clubs not only give fans a sense of belonging, but also completely integrate into the lives of locals, just like parents always send their children to club youth training camps for training since childhood. , And seeing the children in the community grow up here is even more content than the team winning the championship, and each club always serves the fans and the community within its ability.

这里不容忽视的是,这些历史悠久的德国俱乐部不仅给歌迷以归属感,而且还完全融入了当地人的生活,就像父母从小就总是把孩子带到青年俱乐部训练营进行训练一样。 ,看到社区中的孩子在这里长大比赢得冠军的团队还要满足,每个俱乐部都始终在力所能及的范围内为球迷和社区服务。

Look at this moving scene: In the 22nd round of the 2014-15 season, Stuttgart, who was deeply in relegation, lost to Dort 2-3 at home. The mistake of defender Baumgartel allowed Royce to score before the end. After the game, Baumgartel came to the stands to express his apologies, but the fans did not criticize the defender, who is not yet 19 years old, but embraced him together. A fan comforted: "Child, it doesn't matter, you are our pride!"


This season, after Bayern defeated Frankfurt 1-5, Muller and Alaba, who also came from Bayern’s youth training, came to the stands to apologize to the fans as representatives. At this time, there is no distance, no harshness, fans and players are like a family, facing every difficulty together! It is precisely this kind of sentiment that makes the German team always give the first contract extension when a player in the team is seriously injured (think Bayern's Bud), and it also makes Hector, Horn and other famous players when Cologne is relegated. I would rather lower my salary than leave the team...This kind of sentiment may be beyond the understanding of non-Bundesliga fans.


For example, the fans of Moenchen initiated a paper-man production activity, that is, each fan paid 19 euros to make a human-shaped cardboard printed with his own photo and placed it on the seat of the home stadium of Moenchen; Berlin United opened an online virtual version of stadium catering products sales at the request of fans , Supporters generously donated for this and as a selfless donation to the club. The most touching thing is the old team Leipzig Lokomotiv, which is deeply trapped in the low-level league. In order to survive the economic crisis, it launched a virtual game ticket sales (price of 1 euro) on the Internet, and finally sold a total of 182,612 tickets. The European record!


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